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But this model of Black feminism is undermined as a critical perspective by being dependent on those who are biologically Black and female.

Feminist Perspectives on Power (Stanford Encyclopedia …

The Feminist Perspective | Introduction to Sociology

The Feminist philosophy refers to a philosophy approached from a feminist perspective
Becoming a feminist is routinely described by women (and men) as a process of transformation, of struggling to develop new interpretations of familiar realities.

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Feminists have also devoted attention to another aspect oflanguage—the use of metaphor (see the section Feminist Critiquesand Conceptions of Objectivity in the entry on ; and the entry on ). In particular, feminists have discussed the use of gendered metaphorsin philosophy and in science.[] Emily Martin (1991 [1996]) offers particularly vivid examples in herdiscussion of the use of gendered metaphors in discussions of humanreproduction.


Health & Medicine: Feminist Perspectives (Research ..

Gendered metaphors have been used at many levels of discussion,including the most general. An important topic of feminist concern hasbeen the historical tendency to conceive of the scientific endeavourin gendered ways. A particularly clear example comes from FrancisBacon, discussed by both Evelyn Fox Keller and Genevieve Lloyd:

Gender is not just a social role that unifies social individuals. Witttakes it to be the social role — as she puts it, itis the mega social role that unifies social agents. First,gender is a mega social role if it satisfies two conditions (and Wittclaims that it does): (1) if it provides the principle of synchronicand diachronic unity of social individuals, and (2) if it inflects anddefines a broad range of other social roles. Gender satisfies thefirst in usually being a life-long social position: a socialindividual persists just as long as their gendered social positionpersists. Further, Witt maintains, trans people are notcounterexamples to this claim: transitioning entails that the oldsocial individual has ceased to exist and a new one has come intobeing. And this is consistent with the same person persisting andundergoing social individual change via transitioning. Gendersatisfies the second condition too. It inflects other social roles,like being a parent or a professional. The expectations attached tothese social roles differ depending on the agent's gender, sincegender imposes different social norms to govern the execution of thefurther social roles. Now, gender — as opposed to some othersocial category, like race — is not just a mega social role; itis the unifying mega social role. Cross-cultural and trans-historicalconsiderations support this view. Witt claims that patriarchy is asocial universal (2011a, 98). By contrast, racial categorisationvaries historically and cross-culturally, and racial oppression is nota universal feature of human cultures. Thus, gender has a better claimto being the social role that is uniessential to socialindividuals. This account of gender essentialism not only explainssocial agents' connectedness to their gender, but it also provides ahelpful way to conceive of women's agency — something that iscentral to feminist politics.

Feminist pathways perspective - Wikipedia

Thus the primary guiding principle of Black feminism is a recurring humanist vision (Steady 1981, 1987).7Alice Walker's preference for the term womanist, a term she describes as "womanist is to feminist as purple is to lavender," addresses this notion of the solidarity of humanity.

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Natalie Stoljar holds that unless the category of women is unified,feminist action on behalf of women cannot be justified (1995,282). Stoljar too is persuaded by the thought that women quawomen do not share anything unitary. This prompts her to argue forresemblance nominalism. This is the view that a certain kind ofresemblance relation holds between entities of a particular type (formore on resemblance nominalism, see Armstrong 1989,39–58). Stoljar is not alone in arguing for resemblancerelations to make sense of women as a category; others have also doneso, usually appealing to Wittgenstein's ‘familyresemblance’ relations (Alcoff 1988; Green & Radford Curry1991; Heyes 2000; Munro 2006). Stoljar relies more on Price'sresemblance nominalism whereby x is a member of some type Fonly if x resembles some paradigm or exemplar of Fsufficiently closely (Price 1953, 20). For instance, the type of redentities is unified by some chosen red paradigms so that only thoseentities that sufficiently resemble the paradigms count as red. Thetype (or category) of women, then, is unified by some chosen womanparadigms so that those who sufficiently resemble the woman paradigmscount as women (Stoljar 1995, 284).

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Important contribution to the feminist literature on power have comefrom a very different methodological perspective than thepost-structuralist/Foucaultian perspective discussed in the previoussection. For example, in her 2006 book, Analyzing Oppression,Ann Cudd draws on the framework of rational choice theory to analyzeoppression (for related work on rational choice theory and power, seeDowding 2001 and 2009; for critical discussion, see Allen 2008c).