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Dbq Essay Question One | Roger B. Taney | Andrew Jackson

Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the ..

Jacksonian Democracy and its Characteristics and …
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With the emergence of the Jacksonian Democrats this scenario was revolutionized, it became their primary duty to defend the government run by the people, as per the Constitution rights.

Jacksonian democracy introduced the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are supporters of the government in power followed by a policy of rotation in public offices which permitted more people to become engaged in governmental issues.

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From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider male suffrage, and it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that moved Indians into the west to their own reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest Destiny. The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest. Victory in the Mexican-American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.

 

Essay on Jeffersonian Vs. Jacksonian Democracy in the …

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In 1833, Jackson dictated the treasury secretary to draw back federal funding of the Second Bank in direct resistance to Congress.

Jackson invented the 'spoils system' that rewarded party loyalty by aiding its supporters with government positions, regardless of their educational qualifications, rather than handing the positions over to the elite.

The Jacksonian administration stayed aloof from all the major religious tensions of the era thus distinguishing between the church and the state.

Jacksonian democracy greatly followed the expansionist policies and enlarged the geographical territories of the United States.

They propagated the Manifest Destiny, an ideology and movement to vindicate American enlargement policies in the Western Hemisphere.

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The restriction of credit and currency paralyzed the economy. Gordon wrote: “As highly illiquid borrowers defaulted on their loans, a wave of bank failures swept the West and began to roll eastward. Bankruptcies in other sectors of the economy followed as liquidity vanished. The Bank of England, trying to prevent an outflow of gold from that country, raised interest rates, and British investment in American securities declined as did British cotton purchases. Wall Street plunged. On January 2, 1837, the New York Herald reported that interest rates had been 7 percent a year were now 2 or even 3 percent a month.”17


Jacksonian Democrats The 1920s and 1930s were a ..

Land sales were at the heart of the American crisis. The sales of public lands – and the resulting revenue to the U.S. Treasury – had skyrocketed in the mid-1830s. Historian Edward M Shepard noted: “The price of public lands was fixed by law at $1.25 an acre; and they were open to any purchaser, without the wholesome limits of area and the restraint to actual settlers which were afterward established. Here then was a commodity whose price to wholesale purchasers did not rise, and the very commodity by which so many fortunes had been made. In public lands, therefore, the fury of money-getting, the boastful confidence in the future of the country, reached their climax….In his messages of 1829 and 1830 Jackson not unreasonably treated the moderate increase in the sales as a proof of increasing prosperity. In 1831 his congratulations were hushed; but in 1835 he again fancied, even in the abnormal sales of that year, only an ampler proof of ampler prosperity. In 1836 he at last saw that tremendous speculation was the true significance of the enormous increase. Prices of course went up. Everybody thought himself richer and his labor worth more.”31 Illinois was not immune to such speculation.

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In Illinois there had been a major runup in real estate prices fueled by corrupt deals between eastern land speculators and western land agents for the federal government. This speculation was not just a rural phenomenon. In his History of Illinois, Thomas Ford, who lived through this period as an Illinois politician and governor, wrote: “In the spring and summer of 1836 the great land and town lot speculation of those times had fairly reached and spread over Illinois. It commenced in this State first at Chicago, and was the means of building up that place in a year or two from a village of a few houses to a city of several thousand inhabitants. The story of the sudden fortunes made there excited at first wonder and amazement, next a gambling spirit of adventure, and lastly an all-absorbing desire for sudden and splendid wealth. Chicago had been for some time only one great town market. The plats of towns for a hundred miles around were carried there to be disposed of at auction. The eastern people had caught the mania. Every vessel coming west was loaded with them, their money and means, bound for Chicago, the great fair land of fortunes. But as enough did not come to satisfy the insatiable greediness of the Chicago sharpers and speculators they frequently consigned their wares to eastern markets. Thus, a vessel would be freighted with land and town lots for the New York and Boston markets at less cost than a barrel of flour. In fact, lands and town lots were the staple of the country, and were the only articles of export.” 33 As a surveyor in central Illinois during the 1834-1836 period, Abraham Lincoln was a beneficiary of the land boom that caused an increased demand for his services as new towns were laid out.

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Illinois historian Theodore Pease wrote that “by 1836, the issues of state bank notes, no longer controlled by the United States Bank and encouraged by the deposits of government funds, were reaching startling figures – more startling still was their apparent tendency not to find a place in the commercial business of the country, but instead to be used for purchases of the public lands. Credit by means of bank notes had been expanded far beyond the needs of the legitimate transactions of business, simply because these fruits of overexpansion could be used to procure public lands. To save the public lands of the nation from passing into the hands of speculators Jackson issued the much criticized specie circular, forbidding the reception of anything but specie and notes of specie paying banks, immediately in the case of large purchases and in the near future in the case of small ones.” 9 Jackson’s actions exposed the vulnerabilities of the national economy without a national bank to moderate credit crunches. Banks were dependent on the availability of specie to redeem their obligations. But there was not enough specie held by banks to handle their obligations.