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  • March 7, 1975
  • History of slavery - Wikipedia

The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day

The List: Top 10 Fastest Human Beings « CDreamz

10) Michael Johnson: At one time, Johnson held two world records

African Americans - History, Modern era, The first africans in america A-Br
The culture’s killing implements abruptly appeared in the archeological record and disappeared just as fast, after the easily killable megafauna went extinct. Today’s North American megafauna are , not North American megafauna that learned to avoid humans. Bison are the only significant exception, although they came from Asia, too, and explaining their survival remains a minor curiosity, but is about the only circumstance not neatly aligned with the overkill scenario. The “” paper concluded that although the South American extinction was the greatest of all, it is the most poorly investigated and that the overkill hypothesis cannot yet be attached to South American extinctions. That may be a prudent position for a specialist who pronounces judgment only when all the evidence is in, but I will be among the most surprised people on Earth if the pattern of 50 thousand years did not continue there, especially since it had no ice sheets. There can be no more pertinent example than comparing Africa to South America. They inhabited the same latitudes and have similar climates, separated by the Atlantic Ocean. Africa was the home of humanity, where its animals had millions of years to adapt to the human presence, and Africa only lost about 10% of its megafauna (probably to human hunters with their advanced weaponry) while South America lost nearly all of its megafauna, and quickly. Climate change did it? How could it have even contributed?

The Amazing Story of Yasuke: The Forgotten African Samurai

AFRICAN KINGDOMS - Kingdoms of Ancient African …
In the Western Hemisphere, Africa, and Eurasia, the five-to-seven metric ton herbivores and the predators that hunted them became , but in marsupial-dominated Australia they were a little smaller, and the largest marsupial ever, , reached “only” about three metric tons. Australian animals enjoyed about , and large herbivore/predator guilds thrived there as they did elsewhere. After appearing about 1.6 mya, quickly went extinct about 46 kya, and their bones have been . The next largest denizen of did. Megafauna are variously defined as animals weighing at least 45 or 100 kilograms, which is about as massive as humans. About 90% of Australia’s megafauna went extinct soon after humans arrived. , a , a , and so on. A number had , to go extinct shortly after humans arrived. The is horrifically impressive. I have yet to see a disinterested scientist or academic deny the idea that humans were primarily responsible, and almost certainly responsible, for Australian megafauna extinctions. When a “referee” , which assessed the state of the debate, the authors attributed Australian megafauna extinctions entirely to humans. There is evidence that those early Australians engaged in setting great fires. On Borneo, about the same time that humans first invaded Australia, near , humans also burned the forests with abandon, as they probably tried to transform the rainforest environment into something friendlier to humans.


Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …

To briefly revisit , men have always committed vastly more violence than women, were the primary hunters, and almost . In general, the higher women’s status, the healthier the society was. The people of Africa stayed isolated hunter-gatherers to the present day. Their , with its click sounds shared with other African groups, such as the last full-time hunter-gatherers left in Africa, the , probably sounded like the language that the founder group left with and has since been lost beyond Africa. Genetic testing has demonstrated that the and related groups remained in Africa when that founder group left, and their geographic isolation and warlike ways . Genetic testing also traced the migration path to Australia, and found peoples that stopped along the way, as part of a coastal migration that and maybe . One reason why the coastal route was probably the first was that it was warm and relatively easy. Around 60 kya, the global climate warmed a little. It was about before it began oscillating toward .

In today’s hunter-gatherer societies, the EROI for killing large animals dwarfs all other food sources. The EROI, of calories produced divided by those burned during the hours of labor invested, for large game (a deer, for example), is more than 100, and on average four times that of small game, fifteen times that of birds, about eight times that of roots and tubers, and 10-15 times that of seeds and nuts. The hunter-gatherer EROI for seeds, nuts, and birds is around ten-to-one. An average-sized adult African elephant carcass provides about 13 million calories, which would sustain a band of 12 people for a year if they could eat it all before it rotted and did not die of protein poisoning. The EROI for those easily killed proboscideans when humans invaded the Western Hemisphere could have been in the hundreds and even more than one thousand. Large animals have always been the mother lode of hunter-gatherer peoples, and the consensus among anthropologists is that no instincts urge a hunter to kill only what is needed, but a hunter will kill whatever he can. That finding partly derives from studying modern hunter-gatherers. There is no doubt that when early humans intruded into environments that never before encountered humans, where animals would have had no intrinsic fear of humans, people would have had an exceptionally easy time killing all large animals encountered. Animals without experience around humans, such as Antarctic penguins, are easily approached and killed. As happened innumerable times in the historical era, intruding humans killed all the naïve animals that they could. The only animals that survived developed a healthy fear of humans and avoided them, but how many could develop that fear before they were all killed? From the very beginning of the , . More than 500 million years later, a new kind of animal appeared that turned that advantage into a fatal disadvantage, as it found a way to mine that energy stored in large animals, and it quickly plundered it to exhaustion whenever it could.

Photosynthetic people | Human Enhancement and …

Those events happened during a glacial interval; the global ocean was about 70 meters lower than today, and today’s 18 kilometer gap at the Red Sea’s mouth was far narrower about 60-50 kya. Today, this . That route seems likely for a few reasons, one of which is the DNA evidence in the peoples living along Southern Asia's periphery of all the way to Australia, and the other is that were the first humans to arrive in Australia, and it could only be reached by boat. Here is the map of the settlement pattern of Eurasia from the founder group, as determined by DNA testing. (Source: Wikimedia Commons)


Anthropologists and primate researchers , but relatively recent scientific findings have disproven that notion. , and it is more sophisticated with great apes. It took a few million years after the human/chimp split for our ancestors to learn to , and that culture then spread widely in Africa. The , , and were probably all closely related and at least partly interdependent, but little seemed to change . Then the and possessed a larger brain, and new tools and behaviors are evident . The timeframes continually shrank between major events in the human journey. Only 200 thousand years later, and , and new behaviors are in evidence. Only 100 thousand years after that, anatomically modern humans appeared. Only 30 thousand years after that, about 170 kya, , probably due to necessity, where life once again was eked out on the margins, and those humans may have decorated their bodies. About 100 kya, innovation seems to have accelerated again, and by 75-60 kya there is evidence of . Needles and perhaps even arrowheads first appeared about 60 kya. There is no doubt among scientists that members of made those advances, and their artifacts provided evidence of increasing cultural and technical sophistication, which soon left Neanderthals and all other land animals far behind. About 75-70 kya, a , and there is controversy today whether that eruption was partly responsible for the that passed through not long afterward. What became today’s humanity seems to have nearly gone extinct at that bottleneck.