• Irony - Wikipedia
  • Irony punctuation - Wikipedia
  • Irony | Literary Devices

Irony punctuation is any proposed form of notation used to denote irony or sarcasm in text

Types of Irony — All About Irony

Author's Craft - Literary Devices - Irony - CAST

Thanks to Library Lady Jane for all her help in writing these grammar guides over the years
INNER RING: In his memorial lecture at King's Cross College, London, C. S. Lewis used the term "Inner Ring" for a subtle type of cronyism and peer pressure, i.e., for groups of individuals who gather together not out of affection or friendship or common interest, but out of a desire to be part of an informal elite. He felt that such social gatherings formed when members desired a sense of secret superiority and subtle exclusion. In general C.S. Lewis distrusted cliques for utilitarian purposes in which members hope to use their connections to each other to advance themselves in some way. What modern individuals see as beneficial (or at least harmless) networking, Lewis suggests often leads to moral corruption as one compromised his or her beliefs to be part of the group. He contrasts this with Aristotle's ideas of friendship as a virtue when it formed naturally around shared work, shared interests, or shared habits of mind.

Philosophical Dictionary: Incommensurability-Ism

INCANTATION (Latin, in cantare, "to chant or sing in"): A set of words to be chanted, whispered, sung, or rhymed to bring about a magical effect. A large number of incantations survive in medieval manuscripts in both Latin and Anglo-Saxon, and they served as models for later fantasy writers like C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien. Lewis, for instance, has Lucy go through a magic book in The Voyage of the Dawn Treader to find a spell to make invisible things visible, and she accidentally causes Aslan to manifest by doing so. In The Magician's Nephew, the Deplorable Word matches the power of its destruction to the brevity of its phrasing. Tolkien, in contrast, prefers longer rhyming incantations in his work. For instance, in The Lord of the Rings, the barrow-wight has an incantation to charm its victims: "," etc. (141). It takes a longer and more cheerful incantation from Tom Bombadil to undo the charm in subsequent pages.


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Thus, for example, in the sentence, "I came back from there an hour ago," the words "I" and "there," along with the phrase "an hour ago," are all indexicals—the person, place, and time to which they refer is different on each occasion of their use.

A third approach to direct democracy -- the "initiative process" adapted by a number of states -- allows anyone to propose a law which, if they can get enough of their fellow citizens to co-sponsor it (usually by signing petitions), can be voted on by the entire electorate in the next election. While apparently empowering the grassroots, this process has in many instances been co-opted by special interest groups, especially monied interests who put initiatives on the ballot to increase their wealth and power in the guise of public benefit -- or to confuse voters about competing initiatives that actually come from the grassroots. Since the monied interests have more resources to hire petition-signature-gatherers and to run powerful advertising campaigns based on extensive marketing surveys and expert PR advice (sometimes very devious, last minute blitzes that can't be answered before the election), there's a real question about how democratic existing initiative processes are. Furthermore, such processes offer no more deliberation than the unproductive media debates that characterize most political campaigns.

Irony definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary

More recent direct democracy proposals tend to focus on voting schemes (usually high tech) that would allow widespread, virtually continual voting by millions of citizens on whatever proposals surfaced. While useful in building up a buffet of voting methodologies for possible use in other contexts, the lack of organized public deliberation about the issues in question makes such proposals look more like opinion polls than exercises of citizenship. Wise solutions to public problems won't likely come off the top of a hundred million heads.