• Russian Revolution - Wikipedia
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  • An Inevitable Conflict The Six-Day War

Britain overstepped the boundaries and took advantage of the Americans once again and it was inevitable that the Americans would have to retaliate.

by Efraim Karsh Middle East Quarterly Summer 2017

Revolution and Counter-Revolution - The American TFP

To What Extent Was The February Revolution Inevitable 1499 words, 6 pages ..
Thus, when the colonists declared independence from Britain they listed several abuses in the Declaration of Independence to prove to the world their fight for independence, or the American Revolution, was justified....

Mark Twain on Czars, Siberia, and Russian Revolution

A revolution had to occur before Great Britain saw that its power over America was no longer accepted.
Hannah Arendt, one of the leading political thinkers of the twentiethcentury, was born in 1906 in Hanover and died in New York in 1975. In1924, after having completed her high school studies, she went toMarburg University to study with Martin Heidegger. The encounter withHeidegger, with whom she had a brief but intense love-affair, had alasting influence on her thought. After a year of study in Marburg,she moved to Freiburg University where she spent one semesterattending the lectures of Edmund Husserl. In the spring of 1926 shewent to Heidelberg University to study with Karl Jaspers, aphilosopher with whom she established a long-lasting intellectual andpersonal friendship. She completed her doctoral dissertation, entitledDer Liebesbegriff bei Augustin (hereafter LA) under Jaspers'ssupervision in 1929. She was forced to flee Germany in 1933 as aresult of Hitler's rise to power, and after a brief stay in Prague andGeneva she moved to Paris where for six years (1933–39) she worked fora number of Jewish refugee organisations. In 1936 she separated fromher first husband, Günther Stern, and started to live withHeinrich Blücher, whom she married in 1940. During her stay inParis she continued to work on her biography of RahelVarnhagen, which was not published until 1957 (hereafter RV). In1941 she was forced to leave France and moved to New York with herhusband and mother. In New York she soon became part of an influentialcircle of writers and intellectuals gathered around the journalPartisan Review. During the post-war period she lectured at anumber of American universities, including Princeton, Berkeley andChicago, but was most closely associated with the New School forSocial Research, where she was a professor of political philosophyuntil her death in 1975. In 1951 she published The Origins ofTotalitarianism (hereafter OT), a major study of the Nazi andStalinist regimes that soon became a classic, followed by TheHuman Condition in 1958 (hereafter HC), her most importantphilosophical work. In 1961 she attended the trial of Adolf Eichmannin Jerusalem as a reporter for The New Yorker magazine, andtwo years later published Eichmann in Jerusalem (hereafterEJ), which caused a deep controversy in Jewish circles. The same yearsaw the publication of On Revolution (hereafter OR), acomparative analysis of the American and French revolutions. A numberof important essays were also published during the 60's and early70's: a first collection was entitled Between Past and Future(hereafter BPF), a second Men in Dark Times (hereafter MDT),and a third Crises of the Republic (hereafter CR). At thetime of her death in 1975, she had completed the first two volumes onThinking and Willing of her last major philosophicalwork, The Life of the Mind, which was published posthumouslyin 1978 (hereafter LM). The third volume, on Judging, wasleft unfinished, but some background material and lecture notes werepublished in 1982 under the title Lectures on Kant's PoliticalPhilosophy (hereafter LKPP).

 

Background and causes of the Iranian Revolution - Wikipedia


Hannah Arendt (1906–1975) was one of the most influential politicalphilosophers of the twentieth century. Born into a German-Jewishfamily, she was forced to leave Germany in 1933 and lived in Paris forthe next eight years, working for a number of Jewish refugeeorganisations. In 1941 she immigrated to the United States and soonbecame part of a lively intellectual circle in New York. She held anumber of academic positions at various American universities untilher death in 1975. She is best known for two works that had a majorimpact both within and outside the academic community. The first,The Origins of Totalitarianism, published in 1951, was astudy of the Nazi and Stalinist regimes that generated a wide-rangingdebate on the nature and historical antecedents of the totalitarianphenomenon. The second, The Human Condition, published in1958, was an original philosophical study that investigated thefundamental categories of the vita activa (labor, work,action). In addition to these two important works, Arendt published anumber of influential essays on topics such as the nature ofrevolution, freedom, authority, tradition and the modern age. At thetime of her death in 1975, she had completed the first two volumes ofher last major philosophical work, The Life of the Mind,which examined the three fundamental faculties of the vitacontemplativa (thinking, willing, judging).


Another system was the Latinxua Sin Wenz (new latinised writing), devised in the early 1930s by a group of Chinese revolutionaries under the Communist writer Qu Qiubai and inspired by the successful use of such scripts in combating illiteracy among some of the Soviet Far Eastern minorities. During the War of Resistance it was widely used in the Yanan area and also caught on in the areas of resistance behind the Japanese lines, but was ignored by the . After the defeat of Japan, the use of Latinxua lapsed, but its principle as well as much of the spelling remained and re-emerged as pin-yin, the system of romanisation officially adopted by the People's Republic since 1958.


The British Declassified Files on British Guiana - 1958-1964

The birth of every individual is thus the promise of a new beginning:to act means to be able to disclose one's self and to do theunanticipated; and it is entirely in keeping with this conception thatmost of the concrete examples of action in the modern age that Arendtdiscusses are cases of revolutions and popular uprisings. Her claim isthat “revolutions are the only political events which confrontus directly and inevitably with the problem of beginning,” (OR,21) since they represent the attempt to found a new political space, aspace where freedom can appear as a worldly reality. The favoriteexample for Arendt is the American Revolution, because there the actof foundation took the form of a constitution of liberty. Her otherexamples are the revolutionary clubs of the French Revolution, theParis Commune of 1871, the creation of Soviets during the RussianRevolution, the French Resistance to Hitler in the Second World War,and the Hungarian revolt of 1956. In all these cases individual menand women had the courage to interrupt their routine activities, tostep forward from their private lives in order to create a publicspace where freedom could appear, and to act in such a way that thememory of their deeds could become a source of inspiration for thefuture. In doing so, according to Arendt, they rediscovered the truthknown to the ancient Greeks that action is the supreme blessing ofhuman life, that which bestows significance to the lives ofindividuals.